Fabian Demicoli

Il-qaghad u l-holqien tax-xoghol gdid

Labour force survey
l-aktar studju dettaljat li qed isir
dwar ix-xoghol huwa dak mahdum mill-NSO maghruf bhala l-labour force survey.
L-ahhar rapport li hareg hu dak li hareg ghall-Settembru 2001.

 



L-overall employment rate ta’ pajjizna ghadha baxxa mqabbla ma dik ta’ pajjizi
ndustrijalizati, specjalment pajjizi Ewropej, u l-percentwali hu ta’ 54.7%
tan-nies disponibbli ghax-xoghol

 Id-differenza bejn ir-rata ta’ rgiel
li jahdmu u nisa li jahdmu hi ta’ 44.2%, din turi zieda ta’ 1.5% fuq perjodu ta’
sena u nofs

 L-overall activity rate hi ta’ 58.4%, din hi rata baxxa u
fil-kaz tan-nisa, r-rata matul dan l-ahhar 18 – il xahar nizlet b’1.6%


Skond il-labour force survey, fuq l-ahhar 18 – il xahar ir-rata ta’ nies ma
jahdmux naqset b’0.5% u m’hemmx differenza bejn ir-rata ta’ nisa u rgiel ifittxu
x-xoghol

 Naqas fuq dan l-ahhar 18 – il xahar il-percentagg ta’ nisa
jahdmu fl-eta ta’ bejn 35 u 44

 Il-youth employment rate f’pajjizna hi
baxxa u turi rata ta’ 54.6% taz-zghazagh kollha disponibbli ghax-xoghol. Fost
iz-zghazagh maskili r-rata hi ta’ 57.5%, waqt li ta’ tfajliet hi 51.5%


Minn dawk kollha jahdmu 2.4% jahdmu fil-biedja, 31.3% jahdmu fl-industrija u
66.3% jahdmu fl-intraprizi li joffru s-servizzi

 Tnejn minn kull tlett
haddiema jahdmu fis-settur privat

 Ir-rata tas-self employed f’pajjizna
hi baxxa meta mqabbla mar-rata ta’ pajjizi ohra b’modd partikolari fejn jidhlu
n-nisa. Minn dawk kollha li jahdmu hemm 13.7% li jahdmu bhala self
employed

 F’Malta ghandna 7.2% ta’ dawk kollha li jahdmu huma part
timers. Minn dawn il-bicca l-kbira huma nisa, infatti 16.7% tan-nisa kollha li
jahdmu, jahdmu bhala part timers

Politka dwar ix-xoghol
L-Employment
and Training Corporation illum qed tanalizza l-figuri kollha li ghandha
ghad-disposizzjoni taghha dwar nies li jahdmu, nies li ma jahdmux u d-dettalji
li issa akkumulat mir-ricerka kollha li taghmel biex fasslet numru ta’ policies
li jirrigwardja l-kamp tax-xoghol. Dawn il-policies huma mdahhla fil-Joint
Assessment Paper on the Employment Policy Priorities of Malta, dokument li gie
iffirmat mill-gvern Malti u l-Kummissjoni Ewropea fis-26 t’Ottubru 2001.
L-Employment Policies ewlenin huma dawn:

 Li jkun analizzat l-effett
tat-taxxi u tal-beneficcji socjali bil-ghan li jitnehhew dawk li jissejhu
“poverty traps” u li jinholqu incentivi addattati biex dawk li ma jahdmux u dawn
fil-popolazzjoni huma inattivi wkoll jersqu fil-kamp tax-xoghol u jinstabilhom
impjieg.

 Li tghola r-rata ta’ nies jahdmu f’pajjizna, b’modd
partikolari li tghola r-rata ta’ nisa li jahdmu u li jkunu mhaddma sistemi li
joholqu opportunitajiet godda biex tickien id-differenza bejn in-numru ta’
irgiel u nisa li jahdmu.

 Din il-policy ukoll tipromwovi legislazzjoni
gdida li toffri kundizzjonijiet aktar agevolati biex filwaqt li jahdmu aktar
nisa tkun tista’ tissahhah ukoll il-familja.

 Jithaddmu skemi biex
tkompli tonqos dik li tissejjah “informal sector”, dik li sa ftit ilu kienu
jghidulha b’mod negattiv “the black economy”, jigifieri s-settur ta’ dawk li
jahdmu minghajr ma jkunu jidhru fuq il-kotba.

 Li jithaddmu skemi biex
ikun hemm matching ahjar bejn id-domanda ghax-xoghol u s-supply ta’ xoghol. Dan
billi jithaddmu sistemi ahjar ta’ vocational training bil-partecipazzjoni
tal-imsiehba socjali u li jithaddmu skemi li jghollu l-livell ta’ skills li
ghandhom il-haddiema Maltin l-aktar dawk li huma meqjusa bhala zvantagjati.
B’din il-policy l-awtoritajiet jridu jhadmu skemi li jghollu l-livell ta’
snajja’ ta’ dawk li jahdmu, li jirristrutturaw is-settur pubbliku biex jigu
utilizzati ahjar in-nies disponibbli ghall-gvern u li jithaddmu skemi u
incentivi biex il-haddiema li llum qed jahdmu f’setturi mhux produttivi jigu
mqassma f’xoghol aktar produttiv. Ma din il-policy tidhol ukoll il-kampanja biex
jonqsu n-numru ta’ haddiema illiterati.

 Li jkunu zviluppati ahjar
mizuri li jinkoragixxu l-holqien ta’ aktar impjiegi u li jkun hemm koordinament
tal-mizuri kollha mhaddma mis-setturi differenti u li s-settur pubbliku
jindirizza ahjar il-problemi li jolqtu setturi partikolari u gruppi ta’ haddiema
partikolari.

 Li jittiehdu l-mizuri biex f’Malta jitwaqqfu
l-istituzzjonijiet u jinholqu l-mezzi biex f’pajjizna tkun tista’ tithaddem
il-European Social Fund.

Il-prattika
Meta tghasar dan kollu issib dak
li qed jigri repetutament f’pajjizna. F’pajjiz zghir bhal taghna: qeghdin dejjem
aktar indahhlu fil-policy papers taghna frazijiet u proposti li jidhru sbieh fuq
il-karta izda x’hin nigu ghar-realta’ kull darba nehlu. Noholqu dejjem aktar
organizazzjonijiet, inkabbru dejjem aktar is-settur pubbliku pero’ ma nkejjlu
qatt l-impatt ta’ dan kollu u ma nahsbu qatt jekk dak li jkun propost minn
esperti go Brussels hux bilfors adattabbli ghal Malta. Qiesu ninsew illi biex
tkun taf il-problemi ta’ pajjizna u biex tahseb b’mizuri li jistghu jitwettqu
malajr m’hemmx xi diffikulta’ kbira. Ninsew li pajjizna mhux il-Germanja jew
Franza, fejn trid ix-xhur biex tara dak kollu li hu mehtieg. F’pajjizna
kullimkien tefa’ ta’ gebla. Tidhol f’postijiet tax-xoghol bl-anqas diffikulta’,
tista’ titkellem mas-sidien tal-intraprizi individwalment, tista’
tindividwalizza l-problemi ta’ pajjizna mhux biss qasam b’qasam, izda intrapriza
b’intrapriza, persuna b’persuna.

Jien l-esperjenza tieghi ghalmitni li
l-policies u l-indikazzjonijiet huma haga izda t-twettiq irid ikun adottat
bl-aktar mod cost effective skond il-htigijiet taghna. Jidher izda illi filwaqt
illi nindikaw it-triq gusta qieshom li l-awtoritajiet jitfixklu x’hin jigu biex
iwettqu. X’uhud mill-problemi huma dawn:

Beneficcji socjali u minimum
wage
Id-differenza bejn il-beneficcju li jircievu minn hu intitolat
ghall-assistenza socjali, l-aktar dawk li ghandhom it-tfal, u l-paga minima
nazzjonali hi negligibbli. F’certi kazi anzi, dak li jkun, jaqbillu ma jahdimx
milli jmur jahdem bil-paga minima. Suppost li din hi wahda mill-problemi li
kellha tirraporta dwarha l-Kummissjoni Nazzjonali dwar ir-Riforma fil-Welfare li
twaqqfet fl-1999. Din il-Kummissjoni izda m’ghadiex tiffunzjona wara li telaq
ic-Chairman li kellha. Il-problema izda ghadha hemm flimkien mal-problemi l-ohra
li suppost kellha tanalizza din il-Kummissjoni.

Li hu zgur hu li
s-sistema tal-beneficcji socjali waqt il-qaghad mhiex tinkoragixxi l-holqien ta’
aktar xoghol. Wasalna fi zmien li rridu nahsbu bis-serjeta’ jekk taghmilx aktar
sens li minflokk jinghataw flus bhala beneficcji lil min ma jahdimx, l-istess
flus jinghataw lil sidien ta’ intraprizi li lesti biex ihaddmu lin-nies li jkunu
bla xoghol. Huma hafna l-intraprizi li ghandhom job vacancies pero’ ma jifilhux
izidu hafna l-piz ta’ hlas regolari ta’ pagi u salarji.

Inwiegbu ahjar
ghall-htigijiet tas-suq tax-xoghol
L-ahhar survey dwar it-tahrig vokazzjonali
li gie ppubblikat f’Ottubru 2001 wera li ghalkemm 60% tas-sidien tal-intraprizi
jiprovdu xi forma ta’ tahrig vokazzjonali lill-haddiema taghhom, tnejn minn kull
tlieta izda, jghidu li l-iskills li ghandhom l-impjegati taghhom huma bizzejjed.
Dan juri li ghad ma tezistix kuxjenza qawwija bizzejjed fost il-haddiema u
s-sidien kemm hu importanti illi l-iskills tan-nies tax-xoghol ikunu
kontinwament mizjuda u aggornati jekk Malta trid tibqa’ persistentement
kompettitiva. Jien nemmen li l-iskemi li qed ihaddem il-gvern illum m’humiex
jilhqu l-ghanijiet taghhom u l-konsegwenza ta’ dan hu li hafna intraprizi
l-aktar iz-zghar m’humiex joholqu l-opportunitajiet ta’ xoghol li ghandhom
il-hila li joholqu. Jidher li qed nikkoncentraw fuq l-istituzzjoniijet u mhux
tant fuq ir-rizultati. Settur wara settur li jmiss maghhom jien jghiduli li
m’humiex ikabbru u m’humiex izidu fl-impjiegi ghal raguni li jew m’hemmx
inkoragiment, jew li l-iskemi tal-MDC, tal-IPSE u ta’ l-ETC m’humiex adekwati
ghalihom jew m’humiex imfassla sewwa, jew ghax m’humiex isibu l-kapitali
finanzjarju u l-krediti minn ghand il-banek ghaliex intraprizi zghar huma dejjem
fl-ahhar tal-kju ghall-finanzjamenti, jew inkella ghaliex illum f’pajjizna biex
tiftah jew tkabbar negozju jew biex tohrog progett gdid literalment jaqlawlek
fwiedek. Ma dan kollu issa zdiedet l-incertezza f’hafna setturi li llum jaqghu
taht il-protezzjoni. Dan l-ahhar per ezempju l-gvern tana d-dokument rivedut
dwar l-assistenza li s-setturi tal-agrikoltura biex dawn ikunu jistghu jibqghu
jfendu meta jitnehhew il-levies. Id-dokument izda ma juriex apprezament
tas-sitwazzjoni reali u ghalkemm is-somom ta’ flus disponibbli issa huma hafna
akbar milli kienu qabel, xorta wahda l-imprenditur ma jafx fejn hu. Ma jafx kif
ser jiehu l-assistenza u ma jafx jaqbillux jindahal ghar-responsabiltajiet godda
meta quddiemu qed jara futur mhux cert.

Incertezza
Ghandna problema
ta’ nuqqas ta’ xoghol f’pajjizna li qed tikber. Ghandna istituzzjonijiet u nies
kapaci li qed iqumu lill-pajjiz miljuni tal-liri u li xogholhom hu li joholqu
x-xoghol. Dan izda mhux qed isir. Mill-banda l-ohra, ghandna imprendituri li
ghandhom il-progetti, ghandhom l-idejat u l-energija u jridu joholqu x-xoghol.
Dawn jghidu li hlief tfixkiel ma jsibux. Xi haga fl-ingranagg tas-sistema hi
hazina hafna. Qiesu li l-kaptani u l-ufficjalita’ kollha fuq il-bridge, u
fl-engine room, ma jinzel hadd minnhom biex jara li fil-magni tal-vapur hemm
il-problemi. Li jekk ma jitrangawx jieqaf
kollox.

 

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